Cultivation technology includes, first of all, the application of a crop rotation system, the correct selection of forecrops, capital and pre-sowing cultivation of the soil, fertilization and agrotechnical care works.
The best forecrop for wheat are legumes and cereals, perennial legumes, black and pure fallow, vegetable crops, silo corn. Preparation of soil, sowing, clearing the field from weeds, moisture retention, and timely release of the field to ensure receiving equal output on this basis and good plant growth of the plants in the autumn are required mainly for forecrops. In addition to increasing the productivity, the application of crop rotation is very important in the prevention of diseases and pests specific to autumn grains. For this reason, special attention must be paid to the application of crop rotation system.
Soil preparation After the forecrop, the field is covered to a depth of 8-10 cm, which allows the shredding of plant remains and germination of weeds. Then the soil is softened to a depth of 25 cm. As in other plantings, in wheat plantings it is very important to apply cultivation of the soil without turning the soil over. It plays an important role in preserving and increasing the fertility of the valuable soil resources.Then the soil is softened to a depth of 6-8 cm with a disc trowel in order to destruct the germinated weeds and create a soft layer of soil on top into which the seeds will fall. The sowing rate in wheat plantings is determined depending on the biological characteristics of the variety, the mass of 1000 grains, the purity of the seed, germination of the seed and other factors. If sowing is carried out at a low rate, the plants in a single field become sparse, favorable conditions for the development of weeds are created, and as a result, productivity decreases. In other cases, when the sowing rate is high, the plants in a single field become dense, overshadow each other, the soil lacks water and nutrients, and productivity decreases again. Therefore, it is important to determine the optimal sowing rate. One of the most important agro-technical measures to obtain a high yield from autumn cereals is the sowing period. None of the agro-technical measures can affect the growth and development of plants as much as the sowing period. Disease infection of autumn grains, damage by pests, grain ripening time, resistance to adverse wintering conditions depend on the optimal sowing period. Based on numerous observations carried out in Azerbaijan, it is proposed to conditionally divide the main grain-growing zones into 3 groups according to the sowing period of wheat:
- sowing in the middle mountainous areas from 1 to 20 September;
- in the foothills from September 25 to October 10;
- in lowland areas from October 20 to November 10.
At the same time, in each farm, these works are identified and selected by farm specialists based on local conditions and perennial observations. Seeds must be buried to a depth of 5-6 cm in light soils in mechanical composition and 3-5 cm in heavy clayey soils in mechanical composition.
Agrotechnical careWhen planting is planned in each farm, agrotechnical care programs (fertilization, treatment, etc.) must be developed, taking into account the biological characteristics of the plant to be cultivated, the soil and climatic conditions of the area. One of the most important agro-technical measures is to provide the wheat plant with the required amount and proportion of nutrients in accordance with their development stage in order to obtain an intensive crop from them. In general, the plant’s need for nutrients is determined based on the results of soil analysis. With 1 tonne of grain product, 30 kg of nitrogen, 13 kg of phosphorus and 25 kg of potassium are extracted from the soil. Fertilizer rates are calculated and provided per hectare, taking into account the planned product and the amount of nutrients in the soil. Nitrogen fertilizers must be applied with sowing and during vegetation cultivations, as they are mobile, and phosphorus and potassium fertilizers - during ploughing and plastering, as they dissolve late. 20% of the annual nitrogen rate must be given before sowing, 30% in bushing, 30% in boruyaçıxma and 20% in the sunbullama phases. Lack of zinc and iron compared to other microelements elements in wheat causes a lot of damage. Lack of microelements has a very serious negative impact on the development of the plant, the formation of bar elements, the intensity of photosynthesis, the prevention of various diseases, which ultimately leads to a decrease in productivity. Beyond feeding on roots is of exceptional importance in increasing productivity in grain fields.
IrrigationUnder irrigation conditions, the optimal vegetation irrigation norm for wheat is 6500-7000 m3/ha. This norm must be provided during the vegetation period, depending on the plant development phases, the amount of moisture in the soil. In order to get high yields from autumn grains, plantings must be irrigated with grain water. Experience shows that 25-30% more yields are harvested from the fields irrigated with grain water than from the fields not irrigated with grain water. Fight against weeds, plant diseases and pestsAs weeds are more competitive than cultivated plants, the growth of cultivated plants weakens and productivity decreases.The weeds are constantly fighting for food, water and light, which are vital to cultivated plants. In the absence of outside farmer’s intervention in this fight, cultivated plants are destroyed. According to the calculations we made, depending on the degree of infection, weeds decrease productivity by 20-50%.Herbicides are used to fight against weeds. This measure must be taken in the bushing phase of wheat. Early treatment reduces the bushing in grain, and late treatment prevents the fertilization of the plant and the formation of spikes.Different treatment must be carried out based on whether the dominant weeds in the grain plantations are broad-leaved or narrow-leaved.Yellow rust, brown rust and stem rust are dangerous diseases in wheat. Yellow rust and brown rust diseases are widespread in Azerbaijan and cause serious damage to grain. First of all, disease-resistant varieties must be used. Fighting measures must be launched as soon as the first signs of the disease appear in the field, otherwise the delayed fight will not be effective.Seeds infected with yellow rust must be sprayed with disinfectant, disease-resistant varieties must be planted. Root rot disease is present in all regions engaged in grain-growing. The disease develops and spreads more rapidly in natural climatic zones with high annual rainfall provided with moisture. Seed treatment is of major importance in the fight against root rot disease. The most common pests in Azerbaijan are rodents, grain beetles and eurygaster integriceps. Lures must be used in the fight against mouse-like rodents. Crop harvestingHarvesting in the grain production complex is the most responsible process that requires great attention and labour tension. Experiments showed that delaying the grain harvest for 10-15 days means 25-27% 25-27% yield loss. As a result of the observations made during the harvest, it was determined that, in many cases, the grain loss occurred due to improper adjustment of the working bodies of the combine is 20-30% of the total yield.Proper adjustment of the combine mower, inclined camera, forging equipment, cleaning unit and strict control over the harvest are the main factors that play a very important role in preventing losses that may occur.